A BRIEF HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Artificial intelligence is a term that has been around for a long time. It was first used to describe machines that were capable of performing tasks by mimicking human intelligence. This is a very broad term and includes many different types of AI. We’re going to look at a brief history of AI and what it means today.
1950: TURING TEST Computing Machinery and Intelligence was published in Mind (a peer-reviewed journal) by the British mathematician Alan Turing. In it, he introduced the Turing test as a means to determine whether a computer can think.

Up until today, this concept of a computer thinking has been the basis of most AI research.
1955: THE LOGIC THEORIST The Logic Theorist is a program created by Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and Cliff Shaw. The program is considered to be one of the first Artificial Intelligence programs. It was created to prove theorems. AI and The Logic Theorist Video
1956: DSRPAI The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence (DSRPAI) was held in 1956 and hosted by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky.

McCarthy, Minsky, and other scientists and AI researchers, and mathematicians met at Dartmouth College to discuss the future of Artificial Intelligence.

It was at this conference that the term “Artificial Intelligence” was officially coined.
1958: LISP Lisp is a programming language created by John McCarthy in 1958. Lisp is used in artificial intelligence research and is also the programming language of the Lisp Machine, a popular type of computer system in the 1980s. The name “Lisp” comes from the phrase “LISt Processing.” John McCarthy Biography
1959: MACHINE LEARNING Arthur Samuel coined the term machine learning. Machine learning is the process of training computers to learn without being explicitly programmed. Thinking Machines Video
1963: DARPA RESEARCH GRANT MIT receives $2.2 million from DARPA to fund their research on AI. DARPA funds research and development at MIT. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for developing new military technologies.
1964: STUDENT STUDENT is an early achievement of AI in natural language processing. Created by Daniel G. Bobrow to solve algebra word problems. It was written in Lisp as his PhD thesis.
READ THE STUDENT PAPER Daniel G. Bobrow Biography
1965: MOORE'S LAW Moore’s law, named after Gordan Moore, who observed in 1965 that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles every two years.
Moore's Law Video
Expert Systems, Thinking Allowed Video
EXPERT SYSTEMS The introduction of the expert system by Edward Feigenbaum was also around 1965. Expert systems are computer programs that emulate human expertise in complex fields to solve problems.
1966: ELIZA A natural language processing computer program, was created by Joseph Weizenbaum. The program was designed to simulate a conversation with a human being. It was the world’s first chatbot and was a precursor to the modern-day chatbots we have today. Joseph Weizenbaum Biography
1968: SHRDLU SHRDLU was created at MIT by Terry Winograd and is considered a successful AI natural language understanding program. SHRDLU in Action <
1972: PROLOG PROLOG was designed by Alain Colmerauer with Robert Kowalski and Philippe Roussel to solve problems of natural language processing, specifically to handle computational linguistics.
1973: WABOT-1 The first full-scale anthropomorphic robot was created at the Waseda University in Japan. It was called WABOT-1, and it was capable of performing simple tasks such as walking, talking, and interacting with people. WABOT Project Video
1974 – 1980: FIRST AI WINTER DARPA cuts down on the funding of AI research. In the UK, budget and AI research are also severely reduced, thanks to the Lighthill report.

This governmental reduction in funding and reduced public interest in AI signals the beginning of the first AI winter.
1982: FGCS The Japanese government starts the Fifth Generation Computer Systems project (FGCS). The goal of the project was to advance AI through logic programming. The project lasted 11 years, and over $416 million was invested. READ THE FGCS PROJECT OVERVIEW
1987 – 1993: SECOND AI WINTER 1987 saw funding reduced once again in the AI field. This began the second AI winter. The second AI winter came to an end in 1993.
1988: PROBABILISTIC REASONING IN INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS Judea Pearl authored the book that revolutionized the AI field, 'Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems', detailing an investigation into the applicability of probabilistic methods to tasks requiring automated reasoning under uncertainty. BBVA Foundation interview Judea Pearl
1997: DEEP BLUE VS GARY KASPAROV IBM’s Deep Blue AI computer beat chess champion Gary Kasparov, 3.5 – 2.5. NATURALLY SPEAKING 1.0 The creation of NaturallySpeaking 1.0 by Dragon Systems. The world’s first publicly available speech recognition program. LSTM Sepp Hochreiter and Jürgen Schmidhuber developed LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory). A Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) architecture, commonly used for handwriting and speech recognition as well as for detecting anomalies in network traffic. READ THE LSTM ARTICLE
1998: KISMET
Kismet, the AI robot that can recognize and simulate human emotions, was created by Dr. Cynthia Breazeal at MIT.
2002: ROOMBA i-Robot created the world’s first autonomous AI vacuum cleaner, the Roomba. First Generation Roomba Commercial
2006: MACHINE READING Oren Etzioni, Michele Banko, and Michael Cafarella wrote the paper, Machine Reading, therein defined as the unsupervised autonomous understanding of text VIEW MACHINE READING PAPER
2011: SIRI Apple’s AI assistant Siri was released as an app for iOS, two months later, Apple acquired it and integrated into the iPhone 4S.
Siri Introduction
Watson wins Jeopardy
WATSON WINS JEOPARDY Also the year that IBM’s AI computer, Watson, won Jeopardy by beating the reigning champions.
2011: CORTANA Microsoft released their own AI digital assistant in Cortana, as part of Windows Phone 8.1
Cortana Introduction
Introducing Amazon Echo / Alexa
ALEXA Amazon released the Echo, a smart speaker that connects to the Amazon Alexa Voice Service.
2018: ALIBABA'S AI BEATS HUMANS Alibaba’s language processing AI beats humans in the Stanford reading and comprehension test.
GOOGLE BERT Google BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) is created, an AI system and machine learning technique for natural language processing (NLP) which aids in determining user search intent, therby improving search results.
2019: OPENAI’S GPT-2 2019 saw the completion and release of OpenAI’s GPT-2 (Generative Pretrained Transformer 2) language model. Popular tools used in most of the best AI writing software. GPT-2 Twitter Introduction
WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HAVE IN STORE FOR AI? Thank you for checking out this brief history of Artificial Intelligence with me, I think it is safe to say that it will eventually be integrated into almost every aspect of our lives, playing a much more significant role than ever before.
Although technology has evolving rapidly, and we’re already able to perform deep learning tasks quickly and efficiently on large datasets, we still don't know what the possibilities really are. It will be interesting to see how AI will be developed and applied in the coming decades.

Where will AI technology take us next?